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Symposium articles

Prompt treatment of impetigo reduces risk of spread

22 Jun 2020Paid-up subscribers

Impetigo is a common contagious bacterial infection of the skin. The causative organisms are either Staphylococcus aureus or, less commonly, Streptococcus pyogenes. The infection can occur at any age, but it is particularly common in children, especially the pre-school and early school age years, and tends to be more frequent during the summer months. It may arise on previously normal skin or complicate a pre-existing dermatosis. The diagnosis is essentially a clinical one, but if in doubt a swab should be taken for bacteriological culture.

Diagnostic assessment key in autism spectrum disorder

22 Jun 2020Paid-up subscribers

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a complex pervasive neurodevelopmental disorder with an estimated lifetime prevalence of 1%. ASD presents across a wide range of intellectual ability and persists throughout life. Core symptoms include abnormal social interaction and communication, restricted and repetitive interests or activities, associated with lack of cognitive flexibility, and unusual sensory responses. ASD is highly heritable and polygenic. The male:female ratio of ASD is 3:1. Although the behavioural presentation has a childhood onset, approximately 40% of children with ASD are undiagnosed.

Managing common skin conditions in infants

24 Jun 2019Paid-up subscribers

Atopic eczema, or atopic dermatitis, affects up to 20% of children and often presents in infancy. Cow’s milk allergy can also manifest as eczema and gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms. Food allergy should be suspected if there is a clear history of a reaction to a food in infants with moderate to severe eczema not responding to standard treatment, in infants with very early onset eczema (under 3 months) and those with GI symptoms. Seborrhoeic dermatitis is often an early manifestation of atopic eczema. Naevus simplex is a common congenital capillary malformation occurring in up to 40% of newborns. Port wine stains are less common, affecting about 0.3% of infants. 

Improving outcomes in allergic rhinitis in children

24 Jun 2019Paid-up subscribers

Allergic rhinitis can affect a child’s physical health, reduce their quality of life, sleep and concentration, and impact on school performance. Children with allergic rhinitis are at increased risk of developing asthma. Around 85% of those with asthma have allergic rhinitis, which can complicate diagnosis and management and also increase the risk of hospitalisation for asthma exacerbations. However, appropriate management of allergic rhinitis can improve asthma control. The diagnosis of allergic rhinitis can usually be made on the basis of the patient’s history and examination alone. 

Managing acute asthma in children

25 Jun 2018Paid-up subscribers

The BTS/SIGN guideline specifies that the accurate measurement of oxygen saturation is essential in the assessment of all children with acute wheezing. It recommends that oxygen saturation probes and monitors should be available for use by all healthcare professionals assessing acute asthma in primary care. It is important to use the appropriate size paediatric probe to ensure accuracy. Any patient who presents to the GP practice with any features of a moderate exacerbation should be referred to an emergency department for further assessment and monitoring. 

Be vigilant for depression in children and adolescents

25 Jun 2018Registered users

The symptoms of depression in adolescents are similar to those in adults. Depression in children of primary school age may be very subtle and symptoms include mood fluctuations, tearfulness, frustration or temper tantrums. If depression is suspected, it is essential to evaluate the degree of risk. Risk has two key aspects: the likelihood of a potentially harmful incident occurring and degree of potential harm.

 

Mental health

Optimising the management of depression in children

24 Jul 2020Registered users

In a large meta-analysis, the prevalence of depression was twice as common in adolescents (5.7%) than children (2.8%). The 2:1 female to male ratio of depression seen in adults becomes apparent from the age of 12 years. Three quarters of children aged 3-17 years with depression also have anxiety, and almost half have associated behaviour problems. Depression should be treated by child and adolescent mental health services unless the episode is mild and of < 2-3 months’ duration.

Diagnostic assessment key in autism spectrum disorder

22 Jun 2020Paid-up subscribers

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a complex pervasive neurodevelopmental disorder with an estimated lifetime prevalence of 1%. ASD presents across a wide range of intellectual ability and persists throughout life. Core symptoms include abnormal social interaction and communication, restricted and repetitive interests or activities, associated with lack of cognitive flexibility, and unusual sensory responses. ASD is highly heritable and polygenic. The male:female ratio of ASD is 3:1. Although the behavioural presentation has a childhood onset, approximately 40% of children with ASD are undiagnosed.

 

Allergy

Improving the detection and management of peanut allergy

25 May 2020Registered users

Peanut allergy currently affects around 2% of the population. It is the most common cause of fatal food related anaphylaxis. Most patients (80%) will have long-lived peanut allergy. Primary peanut allergy most commonly presents in the first 5 years of life after the first known exposure to peanut. Clinical features are those of an IgE-mediated reaction. All patients with a history suggestive of peanut allergy should be referred to an allergy clinic for comprehensive assessment and management.

History taking the key to diagnosing food allergy in children

25 Jul 2018Registered users

Allergy to milk and egg are the two most prevalent food allergies in children. They are typically diagnosed in infancy and carry a good prognosis with the majority of cases resolving before the child reaches school age. Other allergies may present later in childhood and are more likely to persist. There is evidence of a causal link between early onset severe and widespread eczema that is unresponsive to moderate topical steroids and development of IgE mediated food allergy, in particular peanut allergy. The EAT study showed that infants who were weaned early and exposed to egg and peanut had a significant reduction in allergy to both foods.



 

Musculoskeletal disorders

Optimising the management of congenital talipes

23 Oct 2013Paid-up subscribers

Congenital talipes equinovarus (CTEV) is a condition of the lower limb in which there is fixed structural cavus, forefoot adductus, hindfoot varus and ankle equinus. It is important to differentiate CTEV from a non-structural or positional talipes which is fully correctable. This positional variant occurs about five times as commonly as CTEV. The latter condition does not require casting or surgical treatment. The majority of CTEV cases are picked up at the early baby check or on prenatal ultrasound, and referred to the paediatric orthopaedic service. However, some cases are mistaken early on as the positional variant, and may therefore present to the GP e.g. at the six week check. Urgent referral is warranted as the Ponseti treatment should be started  early. [With external links to the evidence base]

Diagnosing and managing hip problems in childhood

24 Jun 2013Paid-up subscribers

The hip and proximate tissues are implicated in a variety of childhood conditions, and in the differential diagnosis of many more. To a large extent the possible diagnoses are limited by the child’s age, an accurate history and thorough examination. [With external links to the evidence base]

 

Special reports

Optimising the management of depression in children

24 Jul 2020Registered users

In a large meta-analysis, the prevalence of depression was twice as common in adolescents (5.7%) than children (2.8%). The 2:1 female to male ratio of depression seen in adults becomes apparent from the age of 12 years. Three quarters of children aged 3-17 years with depression also have anxiety, and almost half have associated behaviour problems. Depression should be treated by child and adolescent mental health services unless the episode is mild and of < 2-3 months’ duration.

Improving the detection and management of peanut allergy

25 May 2020Registered users

Peanut allergy currently affects around 2% of the population. It is the most common cause of fatal food related anaphylaxis. Most patients (80%) will have long-lived peanut allergy. Primary peanut allergy most commonly presents in the first 5 years of life after the first known exposure to peanut. Clinical features are those of an IgE-mediated reaction. All patients with a history suggestive of peanut allergy should be referred to an allergy clinic for comprehensive assessment and management.

Early recognition key in child and adolescent anxiety disorders

23 Apr 2020Registered users

Anxiety disorders are common, highly treatable conditions, with a strong evidence base for cognitive behaviour therapy. In a recent population sample of the under 12s, only 65% of those who met criteria for a diagnosis of an anxiety disorder had sought professional help and only 3.4% had received an evidence-based treatment. Assessment should include an exploration of neurodevelopmental conditions, drug and alcohol misuse, and speech and language problems.

Diagnosing and managing cystic fibrosis in children

22 Nov 2018Registered users

Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a multisystem genetic disorder affecting around 1 in 2,500 live births in the UK. Although all newborns undergo screening for CF, around 15% of infants will present shortly after birth with meconium ileus and some will already have faltering growth when the screening results are available at 3-4 weeks of age. Infants who present with meconium ileus should be treated with a high index of suspicion for CF until proven otherwise. Mucociliary dysfunction leads to accumulation of mucus in the airways and secondary infection. Respiratory symptoms may be non-specific initially and include cough and wheeziness, frequent respiratory infections and, in older children, sinusitis.

Diagnosing and managing sepsis in children

23 Jan 2018Registered users

The clinical features of sepsis are: fever; tachycardia, with no other explanation; tachypnoea, with no other explanation; leukocytosis or leucopenia. To meet the International Pediatric Sepsis Consensus Conference definition, a patient should have two of these features, one of which should be fever or abnormal white cell count, in the presence of infection. Every time a child who has symptoms or signs suggestive of infection is assessed, it is important to consider whether this could be sepsis. This may seem obvious in a child presenting with fever, but not all children with sepsis present with high fever or focal signs.

Improving outcomes in patients with cystic fibrosis

08 Aug 2011Paid-up subscribers

Cystic fibrosis (CF) is the most common fatal inherited disease in Caucasian people. Recent data indicate that there are more than 9,000 patients with CF in the UK. This would equate to around one or two patients for an average GP practice. Recognising the symptoms and signs that may point to a diagnosis of CF is important so that appropriate referral and investigations can be organised. Symptoms suggestive of CF in the first two years of life include failure to thrive, steatorrhoea, recurrent chest infections, meconium ileus, rectal prolapse and prolonged neonatal jaundice. In older children, additional suggestive symptoms include ‘asthma'-like symptoms, clubbing and idiopathic bronchiectasis, nasal polyps and sinusitis, and heat exhaustion with hyponatraemia. Suggestive symptoms in patients who present in adulthood, who are more likely to have atypical CF, include azoospermia, bronchiectasis, chronic sinusitis, acute or chronic pancreatitis, allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis, focal biliary cirrhosis, abnormal glucose tolerance, portal hypertension and cholestasis/gallstones. [With external links to the evidence base]

Tracking down chlamydia infection in primary care

21 Sep 2010Paid-up subscribers

Infection is usually asymptomatic. Sexually active people aged under 20 in the UK are the group most likely to have a positive result if tested. This is probably because this group changes partners more frequently. However, there also appear to be immunological factors which make infection more persistent in the young. Transmission occurs through vaginal, rectal or oral sex. It can also be vertically transmitted. Untreated chlamydia infection can result in complications including pelvic inflammatory disease (potentially leading to infertility or ectopic pregnancy), sexually acquired reactive arthritis and epididymo-orchitis. There is controversy over important questions such as the likelihood of complications developing and, hence, what sort of control measures are appropriate. Some countries, for example England, have set up screening programmes while others, such as Scotland, have elected not to. [With external links to the evidence base]

 

Paediatric research reviews

Preterm birth associated with shorter life span

21 Feb 2021Registered users

Individuals born even slightly prematurely have an increased risk of early death in adult life, a Nordic population-based study has found.

Prematurity associated with higher hospital admission rates in childhood

25 Jan 2021Registered users

Children born preterm, even at 38 and 39 weeks’ gestation, have increased hospital admission rates in the first ten years of life, a large population-based study has found.

 

Dermatology

Diagnosing childhood eczema can be challenging

25 Sep 2017Registered users

Atopic eczema is the most common endogenous type of eczema in infants and children and affects around 15-20% of school-age children in the UK. Its prevalence is highest in children under the age of two and subsequently diminishes with age. It has a chronic, relapsing course. An emergency referral to a dermatologist or paediatrician should be made via telephone when there is a suspicion of eczema herpeticum or eczema coxsackium. Other indications for referral include diagnostic uncertainty, recurrent secondary infection, when control remains poor despite topical treatments, and for patients with emotional distress or significant sleep disturbance.

Prompt treatment of acne improves quality of life

20 Jun 2012Paid-up subscribers

Acne vulgaris is an inflammatory disorder of the pilosebaceous (hair follicle) units. It is very common, affecting 90% of teenagers, albeit often mildly. However, its onset may be delayed until the late twenties or early thirties, and very occasionally even later. In the majority of cases, acne settles by the mid-twenties, but for some patients it may still be problematic in their forties and beyond. Patients should be referred to a dermatologist if they have: a very severe variant; severe social or psychological problems; risk of scarring; failed to respond to treatment or are suspected of having an underlying endocrinological cause. [With external links to the evidence base]

 

Photoguide

Conditions in children

23 Sep 2014Paid-up subscribers

  • Juvenile plantar dermatosis
  • Molluscum contagiosum
  • Verrucas
  • Impetigo
  • Breast buds
  • Slapped cheek disease

Infant problems

09 Aug 2011Registered users