Active and passive smoking linked to infertility and early menopause

25 Jan 2016Registered users

Exposure to tobacco smoke through passive as well as active smoking is associated with an increased risk of infertility and menopause occurring before the age of 50, a large observational study has shown. This is the first study to assess the impact of second-hand smoking on infertility and age of menopause.

Smoking-related deaths linked to a wider range of diseases

23 Apr 2015Registered users

Taking data from five large US cohort studies, the authors of this present study posed the question: ‘Do current official estimates underestimate the deaths caused by smoking?' Overall, the excess mortality for smokers within the study population was 2.8 times that of never smokers and 17% of excess mortality was related to diseases not formally associated with smoking.

Second-hand smoke in the home more harmful than air pollution

24 Nov 2014Registered users

Pollution caused by fine particulate matter (PM2.5) is around ten times higher in homes where people smoke indoors compared with non-smoking homes, a study from Scotland has found. Furthermore, home air pollution from smoking appears to dwarf that from outdoor sources. Approximately 20% of those living in smoking homes in Scotland will inhale a lifetime mass of PM2.5 greater than the median value predicted for a non-smoker living in a heavily polluted urban setting.

Smoking cessation improves anxiety and depression

20 Mar 2014Paid-up subscribers

Smokers with a history of anxiety, mood or alcohol use disorders are significantly more likely to be in remission three years later if they quit smoking, an American study has found. Smoking cessation may increase the likelihood of remission, but equally, those who recover may find it easier to quit smoking.

Weighing up the risks and benefits of smoking cessation therapies

05 Dec 2013Paid-up subscribers

A prospective cohort study from the UK has found no evidence that varenicline or bupropion raise the risk of depression, self harm or suicide.


Special reports

GPs have key role in helping patients to stop smoking

23 May 2012Paid-up subscribers

18% of all deaths in adults aged 35 or over in England are still attributable to smoking. Almost all these premature deaths could be avoided if smokers stopped before their mid-thirties but only a quarter of people who have ever smoked regularly manage to quit by this age. GP advice is one of the most important triggers to a smoker making an attempt to quit. Evidence shows that offering help to all smokers is easier, quicker and likely to be more effective than just advising smokers to stop or asking whether they are interested in quitting.


Editorials 2010-2012

Reducing deaths from smoking

23 May 2012Paid-up subscribers

There are around 10 million smokers in the UK, half of whom will die prematurely, losing many years of life, unless they quit. Smoking is increasingly concentrated in the most disadvantaged sectors of society, and is now the biggest avoidable cause of social inequality in life expectancy in the UK. Preventing smoking depends on reducing the affordability of cigarettes, using the media to educate and promote health, making non-smoking the norm in public and workplaces, preventing advertising and promotion, preventing supply to children, and providing effective support to individuals who want to quit.

Smoking: a preventable cause of rheumatoid arthritis

22 Feb 2011Paid-up subscribers

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) affects 1% of the population.  Genetic and environmental factors have long been known to contribute to the development of RA. Exposure to cigarette smoke was first linked with RA more than twenty years ago. Smoking is now recognised as the most established environmental risk factor for the development of RA.

MI admissions fall following smoking ban in England

20 Jul 2010Paid-up subscribers

A study in the BMJ has found a significant reduction in the incidence of myocardial infarction (MI) since smoke-free legislation was introduced in England on 1 July 2007.There have been many studies including meta-analyses showing that passive smoking increases the risk of coronary heart disease and this risk could be increased by as much as 60%, similar to that seen in light smokers. The mechanism of such effects is thought to be through increases in platelet aggregation and alterations in endothelial function. These effects can occur very rapidly and as such the benefits of reducing smoke exposure could be seen quite early.


Clinical reviews

E-cigarette use linked to successful quit attempts

22 Mar 2017Paid-up subscribers

The rise in the use of e-cigarettes in England has been associated with an improvement in the success of quit attempts, a study in the BMJ has found.

Smoking cessation services for inpatients could help more than a million smokers

15 Dec 2014Registered users

Offering smokers admitted to hospital behavioural support and pharmacotherapy could help reduce smoking rates significantly, a national audit in England has shown.

E-cigarettes help smokers to quit

23 Oct 2014Paid-up subscribers

Early evidence suggests that e-cigarettes help smokers interested in quitting to stop or cut down, a systematic review has found.

Stop smoking services helping significantly more smokers to quit

23 Sep 2013Paid-up subscribers

Smoking cessation services in England have trebled their impact in helping smokers to give up over the past decade, a study has found. However, a wide variation across local services was noted. The researchers analysed the performance of stop smoking services across England from 2001/02 to 2010/11, asking the questions: How has the performance of the services changed? How well have the services met the needs of different groups including economically disadvantaged smokers? How much local variation has there been in success rates?