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Special reports 2018-2019

Management of hypertensive disorders in pregnancy

07 Aug 2019Paid-up subscribers

Hypertension is the most common medical complication of pregnancy, affecting 8-10% of pregnancies in the UK. It is associated with risks to both the woman and the fetus, with increased risks of pre-eclampsia, preterm delivery, fetal growth restriction, placental abruption and perinatal death. Any new onset of hypertension after 20 weeks or symptoms or signs suspicious of pre-eclampsia should be referred for same day assessment at a secondary care antenatal assessment unit.

Prompt detection vital in postpartum mood disorders

24 Jun 2019Registered users

Common mental health disorders affect around one in five women during pregnancy and the first year following childbirth. Depression and anxiety disorders are the most prevalent mental health disorders during this period as they are at other times of life. It is important to distinguish postnatal depression from baby blues, which is common and requires no treatment, although it is a potential risk factor for postnatal depression. Postpartum psychosis affects 1 in 1,000 women and can develop very quickly in the first two weeks postpartum, often requiring urgent admission to a specialised mother and baby unit. One in six women with bipolar disorder will develop postpartum psychosis. 

 

Symposium: Women's health

Tailor treatment to the patient in polycystic ovary syndrome

24 Mar 2020Registered users

Polycystic ovary syndrome is a condition characterised by hyperandrogenism, multifollicular ovaries and ovulatory dysfunction. It affects 8-13% of women of reproductive age and is associated with insulin resistance, hyperlipidaemia and obesity. Baseline measurements should include blood pressure and BMI. Clinical signs of hyperandrogenism including hirsutism, acne and androgenic alopecia should be assessed. A hormone profile should be done during days 1-5 of the menstrual cycle or as a random sample when there is amenorrhoea.

Have a high index of suspicion for ectopic pregnancy

24 Mar 2020Registered users

Ectopic pregnancy is estimated to occur in 1-2% of all pregnancies and continues to be the leading cause of maternal mortality in early pregnancy. Most ectopic pregnancies are located within the fallopian tube and carry a risk of tubal rupture and intra-abdominal bleeding. Women with ectopic pregnancy can present in a wide variety of ways, from acute collapse following rupture to asymptomatic and unaware that they are pregnant. Symptoms may include vaginal bleeding and abdominal pain. There may also be non-specific symptoms such as Gl and urinary symptoms, rectal pressure, dizziness, shoulder tip pain, fainting or syncope. 

 

Research reviews: Obstetrics and gynaecology

Smoking in pregnancy increases fracture risk in infants

23 Apr 2020Paid-up subscribers

Intrauterine exposure to maternal smoking is associated with an increased risk of fractures in the first year of life, a national cohort study from Sweden has found. The study cohort comprised 1,680,307 live born singletons in Sweden, born between 1 January 1983 and 31 December 2000, followed up until 31 December 2014.

Does paternal age affect perinatal outcomes?

22 May 2019Paid-up subscribers

A retrospective population based cohort study from the United States has found a modest correlation between older paternal age and adverse perinatal outcomes.

 

Special report 2014

Diagnosis and management of miscarriage

22 May 2014Paid-up subscribers

Miscarriage is the most common complication of pregnancy. It is defined as a pregnancy failure occurring before the completion of 24 weeks of gestation. It has been estimated that 10 to 15% of all pregnancies end in early spontaneous first trimester miscarriage i.e. before the end of the completed twelfth week of pregnancy. The risk of miscarriage decreases with increasing gestational age, and late miscarriages, from 12 to 24 weeks’ gestation, occur in only 1-4% of cases. While miscarriage is rarely associated with significant health problems, it can cause significant psychological distress to the woman and her partner. [With external links to the current evidence base]

 

Urinary incontinence

Managing urinary incontinence in women

22 May 2019Paid-up subscribers

A detailed patient history is key to the assessment of patients with urinary incontinence and to guiding initial investigation and management. Clinical examination should include abdominal palpation to assess for masses, including an enlarged bladder. Visual inspection of the perineum and vagina helps determine whether the patient may be hypo-oestrogenic and can confirm the presence and grading of pelvic organ prolapse. Digital vaginal examination enables detection of masses, and an assessment of pelvic floor muscle strength. Urinalysis should also be carried out. Most patients will have either stress, urgency, or mixed urinary incontinence.

Improving the management of urinary incontinence

20 Mar 2014Paid-up subscribers

Urinary incontinence is a common condition that is likely to be under-reported. Its frequency increases with age, parity, high BMI, and associated comorbidities. The history should include the circumstances in which the incontinence occurs, the duration and how it affects the patient’s quality of life. The initial assessment should include enquiring for symptoms of urinary tract infection and carrying out a urine dipstick test. [With external links to the current evidence base]

 

Ovarian cancer

Detecting ovarian disorders in primary care

20 Mar 2014Paid-up subscribers

Ovarian cysts occur more often in premenopausal than postmenopausal women. Most of these cysts will be benign, with the risk of malignancy increasing with age. Symptoms which may be suggestive of a malignant ovarian cyst, particularly in the over 50 age group, include: weight loss, persistent abdominal distension or bloating, early satiety, pelvic or abdominal pain and increased urinary urgency and frequency. [With external links to the current evidence base]

Improving early detection of ovarian cancer

22 Jun 2011

Ovarian cancer is the fifth most common cancer in women. The incidence has increased over the past 20-25 years, particularly in the 65 and over age group. The outcome for women with ovarian cancer is generally poor, with an overall five-year survival rate of less than 35%. The survival rates for women with ovarian cancer in the UK are significantly lower than the European average. Despite recommendations, published by NICE in 2005, on referral of patients with suspected cancer, the majority of women diagnosed with ovarian cancer are not electively referred via the ovarian cancer two-week pathway. They are often referred to the wrong specialty or present as emergencies. NICE has now published a clinical guideline on the diagnosis and initial management of ovarian cancer.  [With external links to current evidence and summaries]

 

Editorials

Perinatal depression linked to psychosis in offspring

25 May 2020Registered users

The children of mothers who experience perinatal depression are more likely to report psychotic experiences at the age of 18, a UK prospective cohort study has found. A joint analysis found an association between maternal antenatal depression symptoms and both offspring psychotic experiences and depression at age 18. Most of those with psychotic symptoms will not go on to develop psychosis or schizophrenia. However, they are still at increased risk of low educational and occupational achievement, social impairment, harmful drinking and substance misuse.

One in three doctors suffer burnout

24 Mar 2020Registered users

Nearly a third of doctors who responded to an online survey had high levels of burnout, and just over a quarter had high levels of secondary traumatic stress, a UK study has found. Only 6% of doctors had the optimal combination of low burnout, low secondary traumatic stress and high compassion satisfaction, whereas 8% had the worst combination of high burnout, high secondary traumatic stress and low compassion satisfaction.

 

Sexual health: women and men

LARC uptake increases in young women

24 Mar 2020Paid-up subscribers

There has been a significant increase in the use of long-acting reversible contraception in women under 25 over the past decade, a national survey has found. However, condoms and the oral contraceptive pill are still the most commonly used methods.

Where do patients seek help for genitourinary symptoms?

25 Nov 2019Paid-up subscribers

The majority of patients with genitourinary (GU) symptoms do not attend sexual health clinic (SHCs), although many would consult their GP, an analysis of Natsal-3 survey data has shown. Natsal-3 is a probability sample survey of sexual behaviour involving 15,162 women and men in Britain aged 16-74 years.

 

Photoguide

Pregnancy related conditions

21 Feb 2011Registered users

  • Superficial thrombophlebitis
  • Polymorphic eruption of pregnancy
  • Chloasma
  • Naevi
  • Jaundice