Major articles on cancer

Improving detection of non-melanoma skin cancer

05 Aug 2015

Basal cell carcinomas (BCCs) and squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) are clinically and pathologically distinct and both are locally invasive. However, while BCCs rarely metastasise, SCCs have the potential to do so especially when they arise on the ears or lips. Patients with one non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) have a higher risk of developing another NMSC and of malignant melanoma.

New developments in metastatic prostate cancer therapy

23 Apr 2015Paid-up subscribers

Advanced prostate cancer remains an incurable and lethal disease. Innovation continues to provide new hope for patients with advanced disease, with improved survival while maintaining quality of life. As patients live longer with increasing treatment options, education of all healthcare professionals involved in their care is crucial in ensuring holistic care for this complex disease.

Early diagnosis pivotal to survival in lung cancer

24 Nov 2014Registered users

Lung cancer is the most common cause of cancer death, both in the UK and worldwide. There has been little change in survival over the past 20 years, with increasing evidence that there are disparities in outcomes between the UK and other comparable healthcare systems. It has been postulated that this is due to an excess of early deaths, delays in diagnosis are thought to contribute to this problem. A recent study showed that 30% of patients with lung cancer die within the first 90 days and they have seen their GP on average five times in the four months before diagnosis, suggesting there may be opportunities to diagnose these patients earlier in the disease process. The challenge GPs face is to identify and refer those at risk as early as possible and to maintain a high index of suspicion if symptoms persist.  [With external links to current evidence base]

GPs could play key role in prostate cancer survivorship programmes

24 Nov 2014Paid-up subscribers

More than 80% of men diagnosed with prostate cancer can expect to survive for at least five years. Up to 87% of men with prostate cancer may have unmet supportive care needs. Patients regularly cite psychological and sexual issues as the most significant. Poor functional outcomes after treatment such as incontinence and erectile dysfunction have a major impact on quality of life. The key elements of a survivorship programme are: education, intervention, surveillance and co-ordination of care. Interventions which may improve immediate care include: structured holistic needs assessment and care planning, treatment summaries and cancer care reviews, patient education and support events and advice about, and access to, physical activity schemes. [With external links to the evidence base]

Early endoscopy improves survival in gastric cancer

25 Jul 2014Paid-up subscribers

Gastric cancer often presents late and the mortality ratio remains one of the highest compared with more common cancers. Early diagnosis improves survival in this potentially curable cancer. Dysphagia, weight loss and age over 55 are significant predictors of cancer. All patients presenting with dyspepsia and either alarm features or known conditions that increase the risk of gastric cancer should be referred for urgent endoscopy. Given that the majority of gastric cancer cases occur in people over 55, urgent endoscopy is also recommended in patients in this age group with new uncomplicated dyspepsia prior to treatment, even without alarm symptoms or if the symptoms respond to treatment. [With external links to current evidence base]

GPs have key role in managing men with testicular cancer

22 Apr 2014Paid-up subscribers

Testicular cancer accounts for 1% of all malignancies in males. However, it is the most frequently occurring solid tumour in men between the ages of 15 and 34 years. Testicular tumours have excellent cure rates, even in those with metastases, as they are extremely sensitive to chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Early diagnosis is, however, very important as treatment is more successful and less intensive, and long-term health consequences can be minimised. [With external links to current evidence and summaries]

Optimising the management of early prostate cancer

22 Apr 2014Paid-up subscribers

A suspicion of a diagnosis of prostate cancer is usually based on either induration or nodularity of the prostate on digital rectal examination or, more commonly, a rise in serum prostate specific antigen (PSA) level. The usual cut-off point for PSA is taken as 4 ng/ml, but in men below 65 a value of more than 2.5 ng/ml should raise suspicion. The Gleason grading of any cancer identified is an important part of the decision-making process concerning the need for active treatment, as opposed to surveillance alone. Gleason pattern 6 cancers are regarded as low risk, Gleason 7 intermediate risk and 8-10 high risk. [With external links to the current evidence base]

Detecting ovarian disorders in primary care

20 Mar 2014Paid-up subscribers

Ovarian cysts occur more often in premenopausal than postmenopausal women. Most of these cysts will be benign, with the risk of malignancy increasing with age. Symptoms which may be suggestive of a malignant ovarian cyst, particularly in the over 50 age group, include: weight loss, persistent abdominal distension or bloating, early satiety, pelvic or abdominal pain and increased urinary urgency and frequency. [With external links to the current evidence base]

Prompt diagnosis key in bladder cancer

22 Jan 2014Registered users

Bladder cancer is the most frequently diagnosed cancer involving the urinary tract. Delayed diagnosis is associated with high-grade muscle invasive disease which has the potential to progress rapidly, metastasise and is often fatal. Haematuria which is typically intermittent, frank, painless and at times present throughout micturition is the classical and most common presentation of bladder cancer. However, irritative symptoms such as dysuria, urgency, urge incontinence and frequency as well as obstructive symptoms i.e. feeling of incomplete voiding, intermittent stream and straining can also be experienced. [With external links to the current evidence base]

Improving the detection and treatment of liver cancer

25 Jul 2013Paid-up subscribers

Liver cancer is the sixth most common cancer worldwide. Over the past decade survival in liver cancer has been steadily improving as a result of developments in surgery, transplantation and the introduction of a number of novel local, ablative and molecular targeted therapies. [With external links to current evidence and summaries]

GPs have key role in early detection of melanoma

24 Jun 2013Registered users

Lesions which have a high index of suspicion for melanoma should not be removed in primary care. Patients should be referred urgently to secondary care with a history recording the duration of the lesion, change in size, colour, shape and symptoms.  [With external links to current evidence and summaries]

Advances in the treatment of metastatic prostate cancer

25 Apr 2013Paid-up subscribers

Prostate cancer is the most common cancer in men in the UK. It accounts for nearly a quarter of all male cancer diagnoses and is the second most common cause of male cancer death. Most patients present with localised disease, but there are still many who present with metastatic disease. Medical castration using LHRH analogues has become the gold standard in managing both locally advanced prostate cancer, in combination with radiotherapy, and metastatic disease. Eventually most men with advanced prostate cancer become resistant to androgen deprivation therapy. This is called castrate refractory prostate cancer, and is associated with a poor prognosis. There is now hope for patients who progress after chemotherapy with the emergence of several new agents that have been shown to benefit patients. [With external links to the current evidence base]

Early diagnosis improves survival in colorectal cancer

26 Jul 2012Paid-up subscribers

Colorectal cancer is the second most common cause of death from cancer in the UK. The UK has one of the lowest survival rates for colorectal cancer in Europe. Collaborative work from cancer registries across Europe has indicated that early symptom recognition and early diagnosis are important factors in improving survival. GPs play an important role in recognising symptoms and supporting patients through the investigation and ongoing management of their disease.  [With external links to current evidence and summaries]

Is there a link between BPH and prostate cancer?

25 Apr 2012Paid-up subscribers

GPs are playing an increasing role in managing both prostate cancer and benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). More than 70% of men over 70 years are affected by BPH, and prostate cancer is the most common cancer in men in the UK. GPs play an important part in the initial management of men presenting with lower urinary tract symptoms and in addressing concerns regarding prostate cancer and the significance of the patient’s symptoms. While there is no proven causal link between prostate cancer and BPH, associations have been found. BPH may increase the chance of an incidental prostate cancer being diagnosed through PSA testing and other investigations.  [With external links to current evidence and summaries]

Postmenopausal bleeding should be referred urgently

21 Mar 2012

All women with postmenopausal bleeding should be referred urgently. Endometrial cancer is present in approximately 10% of cases. First-line investigation is a transvaginal ultrasound scan. A normal TVUS is reassuring, and if examination is normal further investigation is not required, providing the bleeding has stopped. There is no evidence to indicate whether different patterns of postmenopausal bleeding such as one-off bleeding or more frequent bleeds are more likely to be associated with malignancy. [With external links to current evidence and summaries]

Early diagnosis improves survival in kidney cancer

24 Feb 2012Paid-up subscribers

Kidney cancers account for 2-3% of all adult malignancies in the UK. The incidence has been increasing which may reflect changing risk factors including a rise in obesity. Early diagnosis improves survival with five-year survival rates for renal cancer of 70-94% for localised tumours, in the UK, but this survival rate falls to 40-70% when cancer has spread beyond the kidney.  [With external links to current evidence and summaries]

Improving outcomes in lung cancer patients

23 Nov 2011Registered users

Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer mortality in the UK resulting in more than 33,500 deaths in 2008, 4,000 more than for bowel and breast cancer combined. Five-year survival figures are poor but have recently improved from around 5% to 7.5% in men and 8.5% in women.There is evidence of marked variation in the standard of care in England.  It has recently been shown that if patients are first referred to a thoracic surgical centre, rather than a hospital that does not have thoracic surgeons on site, they are 51% more likely to have a resection. There are similar findings for other active treatments. By reducing this variation there is scope for marked improvement in outcomes, possibly to levels seen in other countries such as Australia, Canada, Sweden and Norway where five-year survival rates are approximately double. Thus there is a need to encourage lung cancer teams to select patients correctly so that the best treatment can be offered. Improving diagnosis, staging and fitness assessment was a major focus in the recently updated NICE guideline on diagnosis and treatment of lung cancer, published in April 2011.  [With external links to current evidence and summaries]

Diagnosing and managing pancreatic cancer

07 Aug 2011Paid-up subscribers

Adenocarcinoma of the pancreas is one of the top ten leading causes of cancer deaths and in the UK approximately 8,000 people are diagnosed with the disease each year. The incidence is similar in men and women and rises with age. Rates increase significantly in people aged 45 years and over and around three-quarters of patients diagnosed with pancreatic cancer are over the age of 65. Treatment options include resectional surgery, which is the only chance of cure from the disease; and palliative stenting, chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Overall, the long-term prognosis of the disease is poor with a one-year survival rate of approximately 10-20%. For non-metastatic disease, median survival is six to ten months, although for those with metastatic disease at presentation median survival is only three to six months. Both one- and five-year survival rates for pancreatic cancer in the UK are lower than the European average. Despite improvements in imaging, surgical techniques and chemotherapy, overall survival has not improved appreciably in the past few decades.  [With external links to current evidence and summaries]

Improving early detection of ovarian cancer

22 Jun 2011Registered users

Ovarian cancer is the fifth most common cancer in women. The incidence has increased over the past 20-25 years, particularly in the 65 and over age group. The outcome for women with ovarian cancer is generally poor, with an overall five-year survival rate of less than 35%. The survival rates for women with ovarian cancer in the UK are significantly lower than the European average. Despite recommendations, published by NICE in 2005, on referral of patients with suspected cancer, the majority of women diagnosed with ovarian cancer are not electively referred via the ovarian cancer two-week pathway. They are often referred to the wrong specialty or present as emergencies. NICE has now published a clinical guideline on the diagnosis and initial management of ovarian cancer.  [With external links to current evidence and summaries]

Suspicious testicular lumps warrant urgent referral

01 Feb 2009Paid-up subscribers

Finding an unusual lump in the scrotum or testicle can be very distressing for patients. Although less than 5% of testicular lumps are cancerous a systematic approach needs to be undertaken in all cases to rule out malignancy. Testicular lumps require careful clinical assessment and may need further investigations such as ultrasound. [With external links to the evidence]



DRE has vital role in early detection of prostate cancer

22 Jan 2015Registered users

Digital rectal examination is important, not just for reducing concern in men with urinary symptoms, large prostates and borderline PSA levels, but also because it is recognised that a significant number of men have clinically significant prostate cancer despite a normal PSA. [With external links to the evidence base]

Obesity, metformin and prostate cancer risk

15 Dec 2014Registered users

A total of 104 global studies were reviewed, examining nearly 10 million (9,855,000) men and 191,000 cases of prostate cancer. The analysis concluded that being overweight or obese significantly increases the risk of advanced prostate cancer. The link between obesity and advanced prostate cancer is important for primary care. In order to maximise the benefit from PSA testing of asymptomatic men, we should be trying to target higher-risk men and should now think of adding obesity to that list. [With external links to the evidence base]

Collaborative care effective in cancer patients with depression

23 Oct 2014Registered users

Integrated collaborative care substantially improves outcomes for cancer patients with major depression, a UK study has found. GPs have an important role in recognising depression in cancer patients and should bear in mind the high prevalence of depression when carrying out QOF cancer reviews. This study suggests that treatment is unlikely to be effective unless it incorporates some form of enhanced care. GPs may not have access to collaborative care but can provide case management and liaise with local oncology teams.

HPV vaccination uptake lowest in young women at greatest risk

22 Apr 2014Registered users

Teenage girls most at risk of cervical cancer are least likely to be offered HPV vaccination and, those who are, less likely to complete the course, a cross-sectional study of sexual health service users has found. [With external links to current evidence and summaries]

Are 5-ARIs suitable for prevention of prostate cancer?

23 Oct 2013Registered users

As with the original Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial, the use of a 5-ARI, in this case finasteride, was seen to reduce the incidence of prostate cancer by about a third. Although high-grade cancer was more common in the 5-ARI group, after 18 years of follow-up there was no significant difference in rates of prostate cancer specific survival or overall survival between the two groups. Prescription of finasteride or dutasteride as a chemopreventive agent against prostate cancer cannot be justified on the available evidence. [With external links to current evidence and summaries]

PSA in men in their 40s predicts risk of prostate cancer death

23 Sep 2013Registered users

For many men, three lifetime PSA tests (mid to late 40s, early 50s and at age 60 years) would be sufficient screening to identify the small number of men developing clinically significant prostate cancer, allowing resources to be concentrated on those at higher risk, a study in the BMJ concludes. The European Association of Urology recommends that all men aged 40-45 years should be offered a baseline PSA to ‘initiate a risk-adapted follow-up approach with the purpose of reducing prostate cancer mortality and the incidence of advanced and metastatic cancer’.

GPs’ vital role in end of life care

20 Jun 2012Paid-up subscribers

The aims of palliative care are to provide the best quality of life for patients and their families, and to facilitate a good death. The NICE quality standard on end of life care, published in November 2011, consists of 16 quality statements which inform patients of the standard of care which they should expect and define aspirational standards for clinical governance. If patients are to die well, they need to be prepared for death, to achieve a sense of control, to be free of pain, to be respected as an individual, and to spend meaningful time with close family and friends in familiar surroundings.

PSA at 60 may predict risk of death from prostate cancer

20 Oct 2010Paid-up subscribers

The debate on PSA screening to detect prostate cancer is ongoing. Two large studies published in 2009 gave an unclear message. The European ERSPC trial showed a significant reduction in prostate cancer mortality as a result of screening but with a significant risk of overtreatment in order to save lives (48 additional patients requiring treatment for each life saved). The American PLCO study showed no benefit from screening, but has been criticised for the large amount of PSA testing outside the study in the control arm, contaminating the results and potentially diluting any benefit.A meta-analysis incorporating these two studies and four other randomised controlled trials (a total of 387,286 men), published in the BMJ, has examined the overall evidence for PSA screening. [With external links to current evidence and summaries]

GMC guidance will help GPs improve end of life care

23 Jun 2010Paid-up subscribers

The GMC (UK) has published important guidance on the treatment and care of patients who are likely to die within the next 12 months. The guidance takes account of the Mental Capacity Act, case law, the Government's end of life care strategy and GMC guidance on consent. It provides a framework for making decisions which are often clinically complex and may present ethical dilemmas, and for the first time provides guidance on advance care planning.



Skin malignancy

25 Jul 2014Registered users

• Acanthosis nigricans • Morphoeic basal cell carcinoma • Primary cutaneous anaplastic large cell lymphoma • Amelanotic melanoma • Dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans • Squamous cell carcinoma [With external links to current evidence and summaries]


Clinical reviews

Does vasectomy increase the risk of prostate cancer?

23 Sep 2014Paid-up subscribers

Vasectomy may be associated with a small increase in absolute risk of prostate cancer, the findings from a large cohort study in the United States suggest. A cohort of 49,405 men taking part in the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study, run by Harvard University, was followed up from 1986 to 2010. During this period 12,321 men (25%) had vasectomies. [With external links to the current evidence base]

Do CT scans in childhood raise cancer risk?

25 Jul 2013Paid-up subscribers

Undergoing CT scans during childhood is associated with a small but significant risk of developing cancer, a large data linkage study from Australia has found. The absolute excess incidence rate for all cancers combined was 9.38 per 100,000 person-years at risk after nearly ten years’ follow-up.

Functional outcomes after surgery vs radiotherapy for localised prostate cancer

21 Mar 2013Paid-up subscribers

Although short-to medium-term functional outcomes favoured radiotherapy over surgery in terms of sexual and urinary function in localised prostate cancer, by 15 years follow-up there were no differences in functional outcomes between the two treatment groups, in the PCOS. [With external links to current evidence and summaries]

Identifying risk factors for endometrial cancer

21 Feb 2013Paid-up subscribers

Obesity, polyps and a history of non-familial colorectal cancer appear to increase the risk of endometrial cancer in women with previous normal endometrial biopsy findings, a case-control study from the US has found.

Cryptorchidism raises risk of testicular cancer later on

28 Jan 2013Paid-up subscribers

Boys with isolated cryptorchidism have a three-fold increased risk of developing testicular cancer later in life, a meta-analysis published in Archives of Disease in Childhood has found.

Intermittent ADT an option for advanced prostate cancer

31 Oct 2012Paid-up subscribers

Compared with continuous treatment intermittent androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) can improve patients’ quality of life and does not adversely affect survival, a study in the NEJM concludes. [With external links to current evidence and summaries]