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Do 5 alpha-reductase inhibitors raise the risk of type 2 diabetes?

22 May 2019Paid-up subscribers

Finasteride and dutasteride appear to be associated with a modest increase in the risk of developing type 2 diabetes, according to the findings of a retrospective cohort study.

Does paternal age affect perinatal outcomes?

22 May 2019Paid-up subscribers

A retrospective population based cohort study from the United States has found a modest correlation between older paternal age and adverse perinatal outcomes.

Sitting time linked to raised mortality risk in inactive adults

22 May 2019Paid-up subscribers

Sitting for long periods is associated with an increased risk of all cause and cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality among the least physically active adults. However, moderate to vigorous physical activity equivalent to public health recommendations can attenuate or effectively eliminate such associations, a study from Australia has found.

Adolescents face barriers to accessing sexual health information online

22 May 2019Paid-up subscribers

Teenagers are reticent to search for sexual health information online, a small qualitative study has found.

Regular cannabis use raises risk of psychosis

24 Apr 2019Registered users

Daily cannabis use is associated with a three-fold increased risk of psychotic disorder, a multicentre, international case-control study has shown.

Continuous ECG vs loop recording for AF detection post stroke

24 Apr 2019Registered users

Automatic external loop recording (ELR) is not suitable as a single monitoring device for AF screening following stroke, a prospective cohort study from Denmark has concluded.

SGLT2 inhibitor produces good glycaemic control in everyday practice

24 Apr 2019Registered users

An observational study from Scotland has shown that dapagliflozin produced equivalent improvements in glycaemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes in general practice to those reported in clinical trials.

Educational intervention encourages smokers to consult with respiratory symptoms

24 Apr 2019Registered users

Although an educational intervention increased respiratory consultations in smokers it did not improve detection of lung cancer, in a randomised controlled trial from Australia.

Alcohol use disorder affects offspring’s behaviour in adulthood

25 Mar 2019Registered users

Parental alcohol use disorder is associated with an increased likelihood of marriage to a spouse with alcohol use disorder, a Swedish population-based study has found. In particular, daughters of affected mothers were more likely to have an affected spouse.

Does intensive BP lowering reduce risk of dementia?

25 Mar 2019Registered users

Intensive blood pressure (BP) control reduces the risk of developing mild cognitive impairment, but not dementia, a US randomised trial has found.

Are e-cigarettes more effective than nicotine replacement therapy to help smokers quit?

25 Mar 2019Registered users

One year smoking cessation rates were significantly higher in those who used e-cigarettes compared with those using traditional nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) products, in a UK prospective study. However, many more of those on e-cigarettes who had quit ordinary cigarettes still used the substitute while most of those who quit using NRT were free from treatment.

Cuffless vs standard devices for ambulatory blood pressure monitoring

25 Mar 2019Registered users

A novel cuffless device recorded significantly higher values for both systolic and diastolic blood pressure (BP) compared with standard equipment for 24-hour ambulatory BP monitoring, in a small study from Switzerland.

Reminder app improves compliance with CHD therapy

22 Feb 2019Registered users

The use of a widely available basic medication reminder app significantly improved adherence to treatment for coronary heart disease (CHD), in a study from Australia.

Afternoon exercise more beneficial for blood glucose than morning exercise in type 2 diabetes

22 Feb 2019Registered users

A small but well designed pilot study from Scandinavia has suggested that afternoon exercise improves blood glucose in type 2 diabetes more effectively than exercise in the morning.

Deaths associated with opioid overdose increase

22 Feb 2019

A study from Ontario, Canada, has found that prescribed, diverted and illicit opioids all play an important role in the recent increase in opioid-related deaths.

Rise in vaping accompanied by fall in youth smoking

22 Feb 2019

An increase in the use of e-cigarettes (vaping) has been associated with a drop in smoking by teenagers and young adults, a time trend analysis from the United States has found.

Comparing incontinence rates following caesarean vs vaginal delivery of twins

23 Jan 2019Registered users

Urinary stress incontinence is more likely following vaginal than caesarean section (CS) delivery of twins, a multinational randomised controlled trial has shown.

What factors influence uptake of smoking in children?

23 Jan 2019Registered users

Living in a smoking household and having peers who smoke are key factors associated with children smoking, a cohort study has found. The investigators analysed data on 11,577 teenagers in the Millenium Cohort Study, a birth cohort of children born between September 2000 and January 2002 in the UK.

Type 1 diabetes in children is on the increase

23 Jan 2019Registered users

The incidence of childhood type 1 diabetes may double over the next two to three decades, findings from a multicentre European study suggest

Childhood trauma raises risk of drug misuse later on

23 Jan 2019Registered users

Individuals who suffer abuse as children are more likely to use marijuana or cocaine later in life, a study from the United States has found.

High BP, smoking and diabetes are stronger predictors of MI in women than men

20 Dec 2018Registered users

Hypertension, smoking, especially heavy smoking, and both type 1 and type 2 diabetes are associated with a higher risk of myocardial infarction (MI) in women than men, a prospective population-based study has shown.

Consumption of nitrate-cured meat products increases odds of mania

20 Dec 2018Registered users

There is a strong and independent association between manic episodes and a history of eating nitrate-cured meat products, a US study has found.

Orgasm induced by non sexual behaviour

20 Dec 2018Registered users

Orgasm may be a neuropsychological process associated with diverse forms of stimulation, according to the findings of a study published in the International Journal of Sexual Health. The investigators analysed comments from 919 individuals who responded to an anonymous post in 2013 on the website PostSecret.com. The individual, unknown to the research team, described having an orgasm during exercise. The respondents posted comments about their own experiences of non genital/non sexual orgasms.

Obesity in early childhood leads to obesity in adolescence

20 Dec 2018Registered users

The vast majority of children who were obese at three years of age were overweight or obese in adolescence, a study from Germany has found.

Non invasive skin autofluorescence test shows promise

20 Dec 2018Registered users

An immunofluorescence test may be able to predict new onset diabetes, cardiovascular disease (CVD) and death, a study from the Netherlands has shown.

Pre-eclampsia raises risk of vascular dementia later in life

22 Nov 2018Registered users

Women with a history of pre-eclampsia are three times more likely to develop vascular dementia later on, a Danish cohort study has found.

GP training programme improves HIV testing rates

22 Nov 2018Registered users

Sexual Health in Practice (SHIP), an educational programme tailored to general practice, increased GPs’ rates of HIV testing.

AF recurrence following catheter ablation more likely in obese patients

22 Nov 2018Registered users

Atrial fibrillation (AF) patients with a baseline BMI = 30 kg/m2 have a higher recurrence rate following catheter ablation, a  study of  an AF Ablation Long-Term Registry that included 104 centres across 27 European countries.

Risk factors for wheezing in early childhood across Europe

22 Nov 2018Registered users

Lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs), maternal smoking, day care attendance and male gender are important risk factors for wheezing in infants, a panEuropean study has confirmed. Food allergy and infant feeding practices were not associated with wheeze. The prevalence of wheezing varied widely between different European countries.

New antiplatelet agents are more effective in preventing recurrent MI

22 Oct 2018Registered users

Compared with clopidogrel, prasugrel and, in particular ticagrelor, led to a significant reduction in risk of recurrent fatal and non-fatal myocardial infarction (MI) in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS), in a study from France.

Intrauterine device use associated with reduced risk of cervical cancer

22 Oct 2018Registered users

Women who had used an intrauterine contraceptive device (IUD) were found to have a lower risk of cancer of the cervix in a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Breastfeeding may protect against recurrent cough in early adult life

22 Oct 2018Registered users

Longer duration of breastfeeding appears to reduce the risk of recurrent cough in young adults, a study from the United States has found. The researchers used data from the Tucson Children’s Respiratory Study, a large non-selected birth cohort in which infant feeding practices and adult health outcomes were ascertained prospectively.

High gluten intake in pregnancy associated with type 1 diabetes in offspring

22 Oct 2018Registered users

The findings of a cohort study from Denmark suggest that high dietary gluten intake by pregnant women may increase the risk of their children developing type 1 diabetes.

Sulphonylureas and the risk of adverse cardiovascular outcomes

24 Sep 2018Registered users

The use of sulphonylureas as a second-line substitution for metformin in type 2 diabetes is associated with increased rates of myocardial infarction (MI), all cause death and severe hypoglycaemia, a population-based cohort study has found. The study used data from the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD) to analyse a cohort of type 2 diabetes patients retrospectively. The CPRD contains medical records from more than 14 million patients registered at more than 680 general practices.

Labour induction vs expectant management in nulliparous women

24 Sep 2018Registered users

Induction at term significantly reduced the Caesarean section rate, compared with expectant management, in low-risk nulliparous women in a large multicentre trial from the US. However, it did not confer any benefits in terms of perinatal outcomes.

Length and quality of sleep may affect cardiovascular risk

24 Sep 2018Registered users

Sleeping for more than 8 hours a night was associated with an increased risk of mortality and poor quality sleep with an increased risk of coronary heart disease (CHD), a large meta-analysis has found.

Apathy associated with incident dementia in the elderly

24 Sep 2018Registered users

Apathy symptoms may identify older patients who are at increased risk of developing dementia, a Dutch prospective cohort study has found.

Patients prescribed opioids for analgesia at risk of dependence

25 Jul 2018Registered users

A systematic review and meta-analysis has estimated that the incidence of iatrogenic opioid dependence or abuse in patients prescribed opioids for pain is almost 1 in 20.

Can nicotine preloading help smokers quit?

25 Jul 2018Registered users

The use of a nicotine patch before quitting may have a modest effect on abstinence, a large pragmatic randomised trial has found. A total of 1,792 adults were enrolled from Nottingham, Birmingham, Bristol, and London.

Patients at risk of STIs not attending sexual health services

25 Jul 2018Registered users

More than 80% of women and nearly 90% of men who reported having unsafe sex in the past year did not consult sexual health services, findings from the third National Sexual Attitudes and Lifestyles (Natsal 3) study have shown.

Homelessness is an independent risk factor for mortality

01 Jun 2009Registered users

Although the higher mortality risk associated with homelessness can partly be explained by an increased prevalence of morbidity, homelessness itself confers an additional risk, a retrospective cohort study has shown. 'In this study, homelessness itself has been shown to be an independent risk factor for the high mortality seen in this group. In addition to interventions addressing morbidity in homeless people, intensive targeted social interventions directed to homelessness itself may be needed to lower mortality in this highly disadvantaged social group.'

Stroke risk similar in paroxysmal and sustained AF

23 Jan 2008Registered users

Current guidelines advise treating paroxysmal AF in the same way as sustained AF but the evidence is weak, with only one retrospective analysis comparing the risk of stroke in patients with paroxysmal AF vs chronic AF (analysis of the SPAF trials, performed 15 years ago and limited to patients treated with aspirin). The ACTIVE W trial showed that warfarin is more effective than aspirin plus clopidogrel for the prevention of vascular events (stroke, embolism, MI and vascular death) in patients with AF. A recent substudy of this trial looked at the risk of stroke in 1,202 patients with paroxysmal AF compared with 5,495 with sustained AF, and the effectiveness of thromboprophylaxis in these patients. ' This substudy has shown that the risk of stroke is similar, irrespective of whether AF is paroxysmal or sustained, and that anticoagulation therapy is equally effective in both groups. Other factors, such as age and cardiovascular comorbidity, remain central to the ultimate choice of thromboprophylaxis in these patients.'